Video: Bugs in the Brain – HIV and Toxoplasmosis

HIV-induced compromise of the immune system leaves afflicted persons vulnerable to a wide variety of infections.  In this video, we discuss the neuroradiology and pathologic findings of an HIV+ patient with a brain infection caused by the protozoan parasite: Toxoplasma gondii. https://youtu.be/9mBmgNLz13o

Video: Radiation and Brain Tumors Part 3 – Brain Tumors and Outer Space, featuring Dr Sandeep Burma

Part 3 of a three-part series reviewing the effects of radiation on the brain. Join in on this grand finale as we review brain tumor development in a pilot who had logged many hours flying aircraft at high altitudes.  High altitude pilots at the edge of the Earth's protective atmospheric shield, and astronauts just beyond it,... Continue Reading →

Video: Radiation and Brain Tumors, Part 2 – Cured of One Cancer Only to Develop Another

Part 2 of a three-part series reviewing the effects of radiation on the brain.  Radiation is commonly used to treat a wide variety of neoplastic conditions and often has great success, but sometimes the treatment can cause additional problems.   Join me on a narrated tour of radiation’s dark side in this review of radiation-induced brain... Continue Reading →

Video: Radiation and Brain Tumors, Part 1 – Radiation Necrosis and Brain Metastasis

Part 1 of a three-part series reviewing the effects of radiation on the brain. Radiation is commonly used to treat a wide variety of neoplastic conditions and often has great success, but sometimes the treatment can cause additional problems.  Join me on a narrated tour of radiation’s dark side in this review of radiation necrosis... Continue Reading →

Video: Normal Neuro Anatomy: Coronal Section of the Brain Through the Anterior Commissure

Take an anatomy tour through a coronal section of the normal brain at the level of the anterior commisure.  Join me as I review the major neuroanatomical structures of the normal brain, touching on structures that are important to normal functioning and also key players in certain disease processes.     https://youtu.be/lwF0AySb0c0

Tripolar Atypical Mitosis in Glioblastoma

Cell division occurs in four major stages (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) during which DNA duplicates itself and condenses, chromosomes centrally align and are pulled apart by two centrosomes on either side of the cell, and the cytoplasm separates to form two separate daughter cells. Cancer cells are able to enter into cell division by bypassing the usual complex ballet of cell... Continue Reading →

Vestibular Schwannomas

Intracranial schwannomas most commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). The central/proximal aspect of the nerve is myelinated by oligodendroglial cells whereas the distal/peripheral aspect is myelinated by Schwann cells. These distally located Schwann cells give rise to vestibular schwannomas that originate in the distal aspect of the nerve, usually within the internal auditory canal where it... Continue Reading →

Resorption of Embolic Material in Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)

Vascular brain lesions have increased risk of intracranial bleeding and, therefore, present a challenge to neurosurgeons attempting surgical resection.  Such tumors may first be embolized prior to surgical excision in order to reduce the risk of bleeding.  Onyx, an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, is one of many embolic agents available to accomplish this task.  Onyx has... Continue Reading →

Fetal Gyral Development

During the first half of gestation, the human fetal brain has a smooth surface.  At about 20 weeks gestation, the brain begins to form the bumps (gyri) and grooves (sulci) that are typical of the adult brain, averaging about 1 sulcus per week of gestation after 20 weeks.  The brain of this 25 week gestation... Continue Reading →

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