Video: Radiation and Brain Tumors Part 3 – Brain Tumors and Outer Space, featuring Dr Sandeep Burma

Part 3 of a three-part series reviewing the effects of radiation on the brain. Join in on this grand finale as we review brain tumor development in a pilot who had logged many hours flying aircraft at high altitudes.  High altitude pilots at the edge of the Earth's protective atmospheric shield, and astronauts just beyond it,... Continue Reading →

Video: Radiation and Brain Tumors, Part 2 – Cured of One Cancer Only to Develop Another

Part 2 of a three-part series reviewing the effects of radiation on the brain.  Radiation is commonly used to treat a wide variety of neoplastic conditions and often has great success, but sometimes the treatment can cause additional problems.   Join me on a narrated tour of radiation’s dark side in this review of radiation-induced brain... Continue Reading →

Video: Radiation and Brain Tumors, Part 1 – Radiation Necrosis and Brain Metastasis

Part 1 of a three-part series reviewing the effects of radiation on the brain. Radiation is commonly used to treat a wide variety of neoplastic conditions and often has great success, but sometimes the treatment can cause additional problems.  Join me on a narrated tour of radiation’s dark side in this review of radiation necrosis... Continue Reading →

Tripolar Atypical Mitosis in Glioblastoma

Cell division occurs in four major stages (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) during which DNA duplicates itself and condenses, chromosomes centrally align and are pulled apart by two centrosomes on either side of the cell, and the cytoplasm separates to form two separate daughter cells. Cancer cells are able to enter into cell division by bypassing the usual complex ballet of cell... Continue Reading →

Dura Metastasis: Hepatocellular Carcinoma

The most common tumors found in the central nervous system and dura (i.e. the dense fibrous covering that envelops the brain) are those that have traveled from other body sites in a process called metastasis.  Depicted here is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer of liver cells, that has metastasized to the dura overlying the anterior pole of the right frontal lobe. Microscopically, the neoplastic liver... Continue Reading →

Ice Cream and Imaging: Typical Appearance of Vestibular Schwannoma

Cranial nerve schwannomas most commonly arise from Schwann cells that myelinate the distal aspect of the vestibular division of the 8th cranial nerve. Vestibular schwannomas, sometimes referred to by the double misnomer "acoustic neuroma" (it is a double misnomer because they are not neuromas and they do not usually involve the acoustic division of cranial... Continue Reading →

Classic Imaging: Cyst with an Enhancing Mural Nodule

For many years the only mechanism for observing gross pathologic features of CNS neoplasms was to examine brains extracted after death.  However, advancements in imaging technology now allow providers to observe typical gross neuropathological findings in the brains of living patients.  Some brain tumors have characteristic MRI findings, an example of which is a cyst... Continue Reading →

Verocay Bodies in Schwannoma

Schwannomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors that arise from cells that myelinate peripheral nerve axons called Schwann cells. A classic histologic finding in schwannomas are Verocay bodies (arrows), which consist of short palisades of tumor cell nuclei separated by eosinophilic anucleate bands of tumor cell processes.  Verocay bodies are often more prominent in schwannomas that arise in the setting of a... Continue Reading →

Oligodendroglioma: the ‘Fried Egg’ Brain Tumor

Oligodendrogliomas often show the classic “fried egg” appearance, in which each cell contains a small round monomorphic nucleus with a perinuclear region of clearing, as well as small delicate blood vessels, or “chicken-wire vasculature”.  The fried egg morphology is an artifact of formalin fixation and will not be observed in frozen tissue sections.  In addition,... Continue Reading →

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