Cell division occurs in four major stages (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) during which DNA duplicates itself and condenses, chromosomes centrally align and are pulled apart by two centrosomes on either side of the cell, and the cytoplasm separates to form two separate daughter cells. Cancer cells are able to enter into cell division by bypassing the usual complex ballet of cell... Continue Reading →
Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells that comprise a large proportion of brain tissue. Non-neoplastic reactive astrocytes can sometimes be difficult to differentiate from the neoplastic astrocytes of glial tumors called astrocytomas. This GFAP stain highlights the key morphologic differences between the star-shaped and widely spread-out non-neoplastic reactive astrocytes compared to the neoplastic astrocytes in this glioblastoma, which exhibit crowding and severe variation in... Continue Reading →
Giant Cell Glioblastoma, also called magnocellular or monstrocellular glioblastoma, is characterized by atypical cells that are extremely large, especially when compared to the non-neoplastic inflammatory cells seen on the left side of the image. The tumor has increased number of dividing cells, including typical mitotic figures (bottom left arrow) and atypical or granular mitoses (bottom... Continue Reading →
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A review of the histopathologic diagnosis of the most common primary malignant brain tumor: glioblastoma. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KD6wnMR6Lg&t=74s
Glioblastomas are high grade astrocytomas that often exhibit microvascular proliferation, characterized by atypical hypertrophic and hyperplastic endothelial cells. A mitotic figure within a proliferating endothelial cell is present in the top right corner of the image.
This middle aged patient had a heterogeneous lesion with multiple irregular rings of enhancement following contrast administration. Biopsy revealed glioblastoma with microvascular proliferation and necrosis, both of which contain leaky blood vessels that contribute to contrast enhancement on imaging.
This elderly patient complaining of headache was diagnosed with glioblastoma following biopsy of the heterogeneous, ring-enhancing lesion in the right temporal lobe. Mass effect caused by the space-occupying tumor has pushed the ipsilateral cingulate gyrus under the falx cerebri, resulting in a subfalcine herniation.