HIV-induced compromise of the immune system leaves afflicted persons vulnerable to a wide variety of infections. In this video, we discuss the neuroradiology and pathologic findings of an HIV+ patient with a brain infection caused by the protozoan parasite: Toxoplasma gondii. https://youtu.be/9mBmgNLz13o
Video: TORCH Infections – An autopsy review of a premature fetus with an intrauterine Herpes Simplex Virus.
This case presents just one of many reasons why prenatal care is so important for prevention, detection, and treatment of devastating intrauterine infections. This video includes review of the microscopic appearance of the Herpes-infected brain and macroscopic findings of affected visceral organs. https://youtu.be/L7eHnEB9iDM
Brain Eating Amoeba
Naegleria fowleri, better known as "brain-eating amoeba", is a free-living amoeba that is a major cause of a rare brain infection called Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, which typically affects young people with a history of swimming in warm fresh water such as a lake or stream. After entering the nose and crawling up the olfactory nerves... Continue Reading →
Fungal Encephalitis with Angioinvasion
Infection of the brain by fungal organisms, termed fungal encephalitis, is an uncommon, but deadly disease that tends to occur in persons with compromised immune systems or, as in this case, uncontrolled diabetes. Zygomycetes, a group of fungal organisms that includes Mucor and Rhizopus, has a particular proclivity to invade blood vessels (pictured here), which can... Continue Reading →
Leptomeningitis and Perivascular Spread
Many blood vessels that supply the brain and spinal cord initially run within the covering layers on the external surface, called the leptomeninges (also known as the pia-arachnoid), before plunging into the deeper neural tissue. As the vessel transitions from the outer layers into deeper tissue, the perivascular space immediately surrounding the vessel, called Virchow-Robin space, may provide a conduit for infectious/inflammatory processes. ... Continue Reading →
Infection/Inflammation of Spine and Nerve Roots
The spinal cord is covered by protective outer connective tissue layers called the pia-arachnoid or leptomeninges. Inflammatory or infectious processes that involve the leptomeninges, called leptomeningitis, can also involve the adjacent spinal nerve roots, which similarly have an outer covering of connective tissue that is continuous with the leptomeninges. The image depicts a spinal cord with acute... Continue Reading →
Video: Cryptococcus meningitis explained.
https://youtu.be/6nYyMnAxn_o Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis explained.
Video: Bacterial ventriculitis in prematurity.
https://youtu.be/qi41D2AgzCg Learn about bacterial infections in the ventricle of a fetus.