Video: Radiation and Brain Tumors Part 3 – Brain Tumors and Outer Space, featuring Dr Sandeep Burma

Part 3 of a three-part series reviewing the effects of radiation on the brain. Join in on this grand finale as we review brain tumor development in a pilot who had logged many hours flying aircraft at high altitudes.  High altitude pilots at the edge of the Earth's protective atmospheric shield, and astronauts just beyond it,... Continue Reading →

Video: Normal Neuro Anatomy: Coronal Section of the Brain Through the Anterior Commissure

Take an anatomy tour through a coronal section of the normal brain at the level of the anterior commisure.  Join me as I review the major neuroanatomical structures of the normal brain, touching on structures that are important to normal functioning and also key players in certain disease processes.     https://youtu.be/lwF0AySb0c0

Spinal Ependymoma: Gross Specimen

Ependymomas are tumors that arise from specialized glia called ependymal cells, which line the central cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) containing spaces within the brain and spinal cord called the ventricles and central canal, respectively. When ependymomas occur in the spinal cord, their central location requires that the surgeon cut through the spinal cord in order... Continue Reading →

Dorsal Root Ganglion

The dorsal root ganglia consist of the cell bodies of sensory afferent neurons and are located along either side of the spinal cord. These unipolar neurons characteristically have large cell bodies, which are needed to support the very long axons that carry sensory information from the distal extremities to the cord. Normal ganglia (such as the one... Continue Reading →

Vestibular Schwannomas

Intracranial schwannomas most commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). The central/proximal aspect of the nerve is myelinated by oligodendroglial cells whereas the distal/peripheral aspect is myelinated by Schwann cells. These distally located Schwann cells give rise to vestibular schwannomas that originate in the distal aspect of the nerve, usually within the internal auditory canal where it... Continue Reading →

Resorption of Embolic Material in Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)

Vascular brain lesions have increased risk of intracranial bleeding and, therefore, present a challenge to neurosurgeons attempting surgical resection.  Such tumors may first be embolized prior to surgical excision in order to reduce the risk of bleeding.  Onyx, an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, is one of many embolic agents available to accomplish this task.  Onyx has... Continue Reading →

Hippocampal Atrophy

The hippocampus is critical to learning and memory.  Patients with hippocampal atrophy often have difficulty with declarative memory (i.e. remembering facts, names, events, etc.) and making new memories. Hippocampal atrophy can be seen a variety of disease processes, including epilepsy and neurodegenerative disease. Note how atrophy in this elderly patient, who had memory difficulties prior to... Continue Reading →

Cerebral Vascular Territories

The cerebral hemispheres are supplied with blood via three major arteries: the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries.  This coronal section through the frontal lobes shows hemorrhage involving the vascular territory of which of these three major cerebral arteries? Answer:  The cerebral hemispheres are supplied with blood via three major arteries: the anterior, middle, and posterior... Continue Reading →

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