Video: Bugs in the Brain – HIV and Toxoplasmosis

HIV-induced compromise of the immune system leaves afflicted persons vulnerable to a wide variety of infections.  In this video, we discuss the neuroradiology and pathologic findings of an HIV+ patient with a brain infection caused by the protozoan parasite: Toxoplasma gondii. https://youtu.be/9mBmgNLz13o

Video: Radiation and Brain Tumors, Part 2 – Cured of One Cancer Only to Develop Another

Part 2 of a three-part series reviewing the effects of radiation on the brain.  Radiation is commonly used to treat a wide variety of neoplastic conditions and often has great success, but sometimes the treatment can cause additional problems.   Join me on a narrated tour of radiation’s dark side in this review of radiation-induced brain... Continue Reading →

Resorption of Embolic Material in Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)

Vascular brain lesions have increased risk of intracranial bleeding and, therefore, present a challenge to neurosurgeons attempting surgical resection.  Such tumors may first be embolized prior to surgical excision in order to reduce the risk of bleeding.  Onyx, an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, is one of many embolic agents available to accomplish this task.  Onyx has... Continue Reading →

Hippocampal Atrophy

The hippocampus is critical to learning and memory.  Patients with hippocampal atrophy often have difficulty with declarative memory (i.e. remembering facts, names, events, etc.) and making new memories. Hippocampal atrophy can be seen a variety of disease processes, including epilepsy and neurodegenerative disease. Note how atrophy in this elderly patient, who had memory difficulties prior to... Continue Reading →

Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)

Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of brain damage that affects fetuses and premature babies. At this stage of brain  development, the white matter surrounding the ventricles is particularly vulnerable to hypoxic (lack of oxygen) or ischemic (lack of blood flow) injury for a variety of reasons, including high metabolic demand in a location that... Continue Reading →

Ice Cream and Imaging: Typical Appearance of Vestibular Schwannoma

Cranial nerve schwannomas most commonly arise from Schwann cells that myelinate the distal aspect of the vestibular division of the 8th cranial nerve. Vestibular schwannomas, sometimes referred to by the double misnomer "acoustic neuroma" (it is a double misnomer because they are not neuromas and they do not usually involve the acoustic division of cranial... Continue Reading →

Brain Eating Amoeba

Naegleria fowleri, better known as "brain-eating amoeba", is a free-living amoeba that is a major cause of a rare brain infection called Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, which typically affects young people with a history of swimming in warm fresh water such as a lake or stream. After entering the nose and crawling up the olfactory nerves... Continue Reading →

Malignant Meningitis

The brain is surrounded by several layers of protective coverings collectively called meninges.  The semi-translucent innermost layers, called the leptomeninges, form a "shrink-wrap" around the brain that allows for easy flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along the outer surface of central nervous system structures. Unfortunately, it also allows for easy spread of neoplastic cells.  The image shows the inferior aspect... Continue Reading →

Myxopapillary Ependymoma: Radiology-Pathology Correlation

Myxopapillary ependymoma arises in the lumbar region of the spinal cord and typically produces symptoms associated with impingement of the spinal nerve roots of the cauda equina. It usually appears as an oval or sausage-shaped contrast-enhancing mass, like the one pictured in this MRI image (sagittal post-contrast T1 Fat-sat).  The myxopapillary ependymoma in the inset photograph represents a gross surgical... Continue Reading →

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