Resorption of Embolic Material in Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)

Vascular brain lesions have increased risk of intracranial bleeding and, therefore, present a challenge to neurosurgeons attempting surgical resection.  Such tumors may first be embolized prior to surgical excision in order to reduce the risk of bleeding.  Onyx, an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, is one of many embolic agents available to accomplish this task.  Onyx has... Continue Reading →

Classic Imaging: Cyst with an Enhancing Mural Nodule

For many years the only mechanism for observing gross pathologic features of CNS neoplasms was to examine brains extracted after death.  However, advancements in imaging technology now allow providers to observe typical gross neuropathological findings in the brains of living patients.  Some brain tumors have characteristic MRI findings, an example of which is a cyst... Continue Reading →

Verocay Bodies in Schwannoma

Schwannomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors that arise from cells that myelinate peripheral nerve axons called Schwann cells. A classic histologic finding in schwannomas are Verocay bodies (arrows), which consist of short palisades of tumor cell nuclei separated by eosinophilic anucleate bands of tumor cell processes.  Verocay bodies are often more prominent in schwannomas that arise in the setting of a... Continue Reading →

Oligodendroglioma: the ‘Fried Egg’ Brain Tumor

Oligodendrogliomas often show the classic “fried egg” appearance, in which each cell contains a small round monomorphic nucleus with a perinuclear region of clearing, as well as small delicate blood vessels, or “chicken-wire vasculature”.  The fried egg morphology is an artifact of formalin fixation and will not be observed in frozen tissue sections.  In addition,... Continue Reading →

Gemistocytic Astrocytoma

Astrocytomas (i.e. glial tumors that diffusely infiltrate through brain tissue) are composed of neoplastic astrocytes that may occasionally exhibit certain morphologic differences when observed microscopically. Gemistocytic astrocytes are characterized by eccentric nuclei and plump pink cytoplasm that superficially resembles the belly of a pregnant woman when viewed from above. Neoplasms that are predominantly composed of... Continue Reading →

Brain Edema

Cerebral edema, or increased swelling in the brain, can occur as the result of numerous etiologies, such as infection, inflammation, metabolic derangement, or neoplastic processes.  Typically the brain has an undulating contour featuring crests or bumps called gyri, and troughs or grooves, called sulci.  The mass effect produced by cerebral edema results in pushing or... Continue Reading →

Dandy-Walker Malformation

Dandy-Walker malformation, an uncommon brain abnormality that may be seen in isolation or in association with other congenital abnormalities of brain development, is characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa, agenesis or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle.  In this case of a term infant with multiple congenital abnormalities, the superior most aspect of the... Continue Reading →

Lacunar Infarction of Basal Ganglia

A lacunar infarct is a small infarction, or stroke, that is usually less than about 1 to 1.5 cm in size and typically occurs in deep cerebral structures (e.g. basal ganglia) of hypertensive or diabetic patients with small vessel disease of deep penetrating arteries (e.g. lenticulostriate arteries) . The gross impression of this brain, which belonged to... Continue Reading →

Brain Eating Amoeba

Naegleria fowleri, better known as "brain-eating amoeba", is a free-living amoeba that is a major cause of a rare brain infection called Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, which typically affects young people with a history of swimming in warm fresh water such as a lake or stream. After entering the nose and crawling up the olfactory nerves... Continue Reading →

Powered by WordPress.com.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: