Cortical Atrophy in an Elderly Person (90 years old)

A normal adult loses about 0.2% of brain volume every year after middle age.  Compared to young and middle-aged adults, the brains of the elderly have comparatively widened sulci, narrowed gyri, a thin cortical ribbon, and enlarged ventricles due to progressive brain volume loss, which, clinically, may contribute slower processing speed for cognitive tasks and other changes.  Microglia-mediated synaptic pruning and other etiologies for decreasing cortical volume in the... Continue Reading →

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Dandy-Walker Malformation

Dandy-Walker malformation, an uncommon brain abnormality that may be seen in isolation or in association with other congenital abnormalities of brain development, is characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa, agenesis or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle.  In this case of a term infant with multiple congenital abnormalities, the superior most aspect of the... Continue Reading →

Premature Fetal Brain

The brain of a premature fetus, shown here (front of brain pointing to the left) is initially smooth in the early stages of development.  After about 20 weeks gestation, grooves develop in the cortical surface that gradually become more defined until they form well delineated gyri and sulci (i.e. bumps and grooves) typical of a mature brain.  The brain... Continue Reading →

Dorsal Root Ganglia

Dorsal root ganglia are located along the length of the spinal cord and are composed of clusters of large neuron cell bodies, each with a prominent nucleus and nucleolus, that belong to sensory nerves whose axons deliver sensory information to the spinal cord.

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