Video: Bugs in the Brain – HIV and Toxoplasmosis

HIV-induced compromise of the immune system leaves afflicted persons vulnerable to a wide variety of infections.  In this video, we discuss the neuroradiology and pathologic findings of an HIV+ patient with a brain infection caused by the protozoan parasite: Toxoplasma gondii.

Video: Radiation and Brain Tumors, Part 1 – Radiation Necrosis and Brain Metastasis

Part 1 of a three-part series reviewing the effects of radiation on the brain. Radiation is commonly used to treat a wide variety of neoplastic conditions and often has great success, but sometimes the treatment can cause additional problems.  Join me on a narrated tour of radiation’s dark side in this review of radiation necrosis... Continue Reading →

Stroke: Resolving Infarction

Brain infarction, or stroke, refers to brain tissue death due to a lack of life-sustaining blood flow to this area.  This brain, which belonged to a person with extensive cardiovascular disease, shows a resolving infarction involving the cerebral cortex of the occipital lobe.  Microscopically this yellow-brown discolored area is infiltrated by an army of macrophages that slowly removes the dead brain tissue until,... Continue Reading →

Tuberculosis with Caseating Granuloma

Tuberculosis, or TB, is characterized by the formation of granulomas that often have central necrosis, called caseous necrosis due to its cottage-cheese appearance on gross evaluation.  Caseating granulomas characteristically have central necrosis surrounded by an immediate layer of macrophages and inflammatory cells, which, in turn, are surrounded by proliferating fibroblasts.  This effort to contain the... Continue Reading →

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