Diffuse axonal injury: Trauma that is strong enough to break long slender blood vessels is usually strong enough to break long delicate axons, too. Therefore, the presence of gross microhemorrhages in long white matter tracts, such as the corpus callosum, strongly suggests that diffuse axonal injury will be seen on microscopic evaluation of the axons comprising these white matter tracts. The image shows... Continue Reading →
https://youtu.be/6nYyMnAxn_o Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis explained.
The brain of a premature fetus, shown here (front of brain pointing to the left) is initially smooth in the early stages of development. After about 20 weeks gestation, grooves develop in the cortical surface that gradually become more defined until they form well delineated gyri and sulci (i.e. bumps and grooves) typical of a mature brain. The brain... Continue Reading →
https://youtu.be/qi41D2AgzCg Learn about bacterial infections in the ventricle of a fetus.
A review of the histopathologic diagnosis of the most common primary malignant brain tumor: glioblastoma. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KD6wnMR6Lg&t=74s
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A common histologic finding in ependymomas (shown here) are perivascular pseudo-rosettes characterized by neoplastic ependymal cell nuclei radiating outward from a blood vessel, which creates a pink zone of glial processes immediately surrounding the blood vessels.
Hemangioblastoma is highly vascular tumor with neoplastic stromal/interstitial cells that have a variably clear cell appearance due to their lipid and glycogen cytoplasmic contents. Hemangioblastomas can be found in patients with von Hippel Lindau (VHL) syndrome, who also have increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Immunostains can be used to differentiate the inhibin-positive... Continue Reading →
Choroid plexus papillomas are low grade tumors that arise from the intraventricular CSF-producing choroid plexus. Here we see the transition from the round bland nuclei and ample pink cytoplasm of the normal choroid plexus epithelium (bottom of image) to the dysplastic columnar epithelium of the papilloma (top of image) featuring nuclear crowding and mitotic activity... Continue Reading →